The 2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine led to a complete halt of maritime grain shipments from Ukraine, previously a major exporter via the Black Sea. This resulted in a rise in world food prices and the threat of famine in lower-income countries.
Odesa is one of the largest ports in the Black Sea basin, with a total annual traffic capacity of 40-50 million tonnes. It is the only port of Ukraine capable of accepting Panamax class vessels. With the annexion of Marioupol seaport and tensions in the Black Sea, two Ukrainian ports on the Danube became critical. Izmail Sea Commercial Port is capable of handling up to 8.5 million tons of cargo per year. In 2022, the Reni seaport increased the cargo transshipment by 6.5 times compared to the previous year – up to 6.8 million tons.
Owing to the Black Sea Grain Initiative, by mid-July 2023, more than 1000 voyages had successfully left Ukrainian ports carrying nearly 33 million tonnes of grain and other food products to 45 countries.
The war in Ukraine has an global impact on food price and food security as Russia threatens again Ukrainian exportations of cereals toward the rest of the World since it withdrew from the Black Sea Grain Initiative. Russia attacks on Ukrainian Ports hit the ports of Odesa on the Black Sea as well as Reni and Izmail on the Danube River, damaging warehouses used to export grain.