4000m high skirmishes at the Chinese-Indian 'border'

Sentinel-2 MSI acquired on 29 June 2019 at 05:26:51 UTC
Sentinel-2 MSI acquired on 31 December 2019 at 04:42:01 UTC
Sentinel-1 CSAR IW acquired on 08 June 2020 at 12:48:35 UTC
Sentinel-1 CSAR IW acquired on 10 June 2020 at 00:41:38 UTC
Author(s): Sentinel Vision team, VisioTerra, France - svp@visioterra.fr
Keyword(s): Mountain range, valley, border, security, Himalaya, Tibet plateau, China, India
Fig. 1 - S1 (10.06.10) - Central part of Lake Pangong Tso is revendicated by both China and India.
Fig. 2 - S2 - A series of clashes happened on 05, 10 & 11.05.2020 after China seized 60 km² west of the "Line of Actual Control" (LAC).
The 1996 agreement states, "No activities of either side shall overstep the line of actual control." while "The two sides agree that references to the line of actual control in this Agreement do not prejudice their respective positions on the boundary question". In October 2013, India and China signed a border defense cooperation agreement to ensure that patrolling along the LAC does not escalate into armed conflict.
Fig. 3 - On 10.05.2020, Indian sources reported a brawl after a Chinese intrusion into Muguthang Valley, in Lakkim region, critical for India.
Some of these border problems are related to the recognition of the Tibet independance from the fall of the Qing dynasty in 1912 until the Chinese army marched into Tibet and defeated its army in 1950 and the authority of the Tibetan government to sign agreements with the British authorities relative to the borders with India during the 1914 Simla Convention.
Fig. 4 - S2 (29.06.2019) - The Gogra region is rich in roads and military outposts, located on the Indian side, it is claimed by Pakistan and was not contested by China until now.
In 2017, Indian soldiers had caused violations after China built infrastructures on its side of the 3440 km long LAC. The development of Indian roads to increase control west of the LAC may have triggered Chinese reactions.
Fig. 5 - S1 (08.06.2020) - The Shyok river is at west of the LAC as well as a part its Galwan tributary valley which Indian lost access to. Previously a non-contested area, it is now guarded by Chinese defenses on heights.
A standoff using melee weapons and stone pelting on sloped terrain left at least 20 dead soldiers on the Indian side, 43 on the Chinese side.
Left, source: BBC