The historic Armenia area has been near the moving border of conflicting powers, located in what is today Russia, Turkiye and Iran. After the Armenian genocide, Nagorno-Karabakh was inhabited by 90% of Armenian but the Soviet government granted it to Soviet Azerbaijan. Following the 1991 collapse of the Soviet Union, Nagorno-Karabakh declared independence after a referendum recognized only by Armenia, the Republic of Artsakh remains De jure Azeri.
After the 2020 armistice of the second Nagorno-Karabakh war, Lachin corridor became the sole connection between Armenia and Nagorno-Karabakh, protected by a Russian peacekeeping force. On 12 December 2022, so-called Azerbaijani eco-activists launched a blockade of the Lachin corridor. Importation of food, fuel, and medicine is blocked, and the 120 000 residents of the region are trapped, creating a humanitarian crisis. During the blockade, various vital infrastructure which passes from Armenia to Artsakh through Azerbaijani-controlled territory has been damaged at different times, including gas, electricity, and Internet.